THE FABRICATED OBJECT / 29/11/12 - 25/01/13
Exhibition runs: 29th November 2012 to 25th January 2013
Building on Michael Petry's book, The Art of Not Making: The New Artist/Artisan Relationship, this exhibition explores the various factors that motivate artists today to use assistants or outsourcing as part of their practice.
Posters for David Hockney's exhibition at the Royal Academy earlier this year proclaimed: "all the works here were made by the artist himself, personally"; reigniting vehement public debate on the validity of an artists' use of assistants and outsourcing.
Speaking about his spot paintings, Damien Hirst explained he employed assistants to make hundreds of spot paintings because he "couldn't be arsed doing it". This is certainly not the only reason artists outsource. Hockney's exclamation that all art should be made personally by the artist would deny not only Hirst, but a considerable proportion of art history. Old Masters such as Michelangelo, Rubens and Rembrandt relied on their studios, assistants and apprentices. Picasso, Rodin and indeed any artist who has ever worked in glass or bronze would be refuted; even Matisse's celebrated 'Snail' collage was glued in place by his assistant when he was too frail to do so himself.
Outsourcing and assistance is often a necessity in realising large, heavy or complex work; but it has also taken on a conceptual significance for many artists today. Stepping back from the complications of other debates surrounding Hirst's particular use of assistants, this exhibition focuses on some of the many other contemporary artists who have assistants and use outsourcing as part of their practice, exploring the range of motivations particular to each artist and project – including among others the work of Joseph Havel and Richard Wilson.
Constructed from hundreds of shirt labels that the artist personally designed, Joseph Havel's 'Desire' is a conical net, gracefully falling from a single point in the ceiling. For Havel, the label is not only a material for art-making, but a capsule that holds the concerns of his earlier work with white dress shirts, representing the constraints of male gender roles. The labels are produced by an ordinary clothing wholesaler in Dallas, creating hundreds of units a day. It is important that the labels are mass-produced to the standards of the clothing industry- if they were unique handcrafted objects, his work would be seen in an entirely different light.
Richard Wilson is better known for his monumental sculptures such as 'Shack Stack', a permanent structure based on the unique construction of allotment sheds encountered around Britain. Cast in aluminium, these typically flimsy shelters now stand as a permanent testament to the fleeting creativity of this patchwork architecture. The weight and size alone are enough to prohibit the artist realising the work without assistance. Even the maquettes used for planning are outsourced under the supervision of engineers, a necessity in a world obsessed by health and safety, yet they are realised to Wilson's designs and he remains heavily involved in the production from start to finish.
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This exhibition is curated by Michael Petry and Sumarria Lunn.
The exhibition is accompanied by The Art of Not Making (Thames & Hudson, 2012) and a symposium at the Royal Academy Schools (11th January, 2013) entitled To Make or Not To Make. It will bring together curators, journalists, artists and academics to discuss the issues raised in the exhibition and book.
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Per Barclay (b. 1955) is a graduate of the University of Bergen. Recent selected solo shows include: Per Barclay, RueVisconti, Paris (2012), Norsk Gallerie Poggi & Bertoux, Paris (2011), Per Barclay, Lofoten, Palermo, Paris (2011), Galleri MGM, Oslo (2011), Canon, Galerie Guy Bärtschi, Geneva (2010), Per Barclay, Palazzo Constantino, Francesco Pantaleone Arte Contemporanea, Palermo (2010), Adolf Kanonen, Galleri MGM, Oslo (2010), 68°50'N., Bergen Kunsthall, Bergen (2009), 68°50'N., The Festival of North Norway, Harstad (2009), Chambre d'huile, Fondazione Merz, Turin (2008), Chambre d'huile, Centre de Création Contemporaine de Tours (2008), Sans parole, Musée d'Art Contemporain de Serignan (2008), Stanze d'acqua, Otto Gallery, Bologna (2008), Ayúdame Ribera, Galería Oliva Arauna, Madrid (2007) and Nytt Landskap, Galleri MGM, Oslo (2007). Recent selected group shows include: 20 ans déjà!, Galerie Guy Bärtschi, Geneva (2010), Lesson in the Art of fallino, Preus Fotomuseum, Norway (2009), Paisajes Cruzados; Es Baluard Contemporary Art Muesum, Mallorca (2009), Effet Miroir, Michel Rein, Paris (2009), Nachspiel Vorspiel, Vestfossen Kunstlaboratorium, Norway (2009), 30 ans d'art contemporain à Meymac, Centre d'art contemporain, France (2009), Grensetilstander, internasjonal samtidkunst fra 1990, tallet, Sorlandet Art Museum, Norway (2008), Tracce d'acqua. Sulla via dello Stura, Moiola, Italy (2008), Feminae, Galerie Guy Bärtschi, Geneva (2008), Collective One, Galerie Guy Bärtschi, Geneva (2007), Espacios para habitar. Fondos de la Colección Permanente, Palacio de Cristal, Parque del Retiro (2007), Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía, Madrid (2007), Speed One, Centro Julio Gonzalez, IVAM, Institut Valencià d'Art Modern (2007), Collectors 1. Collezione La Gaia, Cesac, Centro Sperimentale per le Arti Contemporanee, Caraglio, Cuneo (2007) and Permanente, Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía, Madrid (2007).
Angela de la Cruz (b. 1965, Spain) lives and works in London and is a graduate of Chelsea College of Art, Goldsmiths College and Slade School of Art. Selected solo exhibitions include Wetterling Gallery, Stockholm, Sweden (forthcoming), Lisson Gallery, Milan, Italy (forthcoming), Transfer Anna Schwartz, Melbourne (2012), Wet, Galerie Krinzinger, Vienna (2012), Delimitations, Herzliya Museum, Tel Aviv (2012), Transfer Helga de Alvear, Madrid (2011), Transfer, Lisson Gallery, London (2011), After, Camden Arts Centre, London (2010) and Trabalho Work Culturgest, Porto (2006). Selected recent group exhibitions include Tirar de Hilo (e imagen espectacular), Coleccion ARTIUM, Vitoria, Spain (forthcoming), IV Bienal de Arte Contemporaneo, ONCE, Madrid (2012), Museo Patio Herreriano, curated by Maria de Corral, Museum of Modern Art, Moscow (2011), Out of Storage, Timmerfabriek, Maastricht, Netherlands (2011), ROTOR, Siobhan Davies, London (2010), Soft Sculpture, National Gallery, Canberra (2009), HoviArt, Anttolanovi, Anttola, Finland (2009), Atered States of Paint, Dundee Contemporary Arts, Scotland (2008) and Framat, Rekord Gallery, Oslo (2008). In 2010, she was awarded the Paul Hamlyn Award, and was nominated for the Turner Prize; and in 2011 she was awarded the Gran Premio AECA at ARCO, Madrid. Her work is held in significant public and private collections internationally.
Mark Hampson (b.1968) studied painting at Chelsea school of Art (1986-90) and the Royal College of Art (1990-92). Solo exhibitions include Almost Real Art, Royal Academy of Art, London (2012), We pay cash for dead artists, Foyer, Aberdeen (2009), We notable Calgarians!, The Deans gallery, Calgary (2008), Making 'Nowhere' Somewhere, William Morris Gallery, London (2007), Johns, Pauls, Georges and Ringos, Lawrence Graham Gallery, London (2005), Johns, Pauls, Georges and Ringos, New Arts Gallery, Connecticut (2005), England Away!, Gallery Aoyama, Tokyo (2002), OK/UK, Gallery Aoyama, Tokyo (2000), Fabulous Young Casuals, Oldham Art Gallery and North west Arts Council, Oldham (2000), The Goodge Street Portraits; morning, noon and night, Henry Peacock Gallery, London (1999), DMA gallery, New York (1999), Galleri M, Stockholm (1997), Galleri M, Stockholm (1995), The Beaux Arts Gallery, London (1995) and Galleri M, Stockholm (1993). Selected group shows include Never Promised Pound Land, No Format Gallery, London (2012), In conversation with Stuart Sutcliffe, Media Junction, London, Liverpool and Hamburg (2012), A sort of night to the mind, Artary Gallery, Stuttgart (2012), A sort of night to the mind, Gallery Arch 402, London (2012), FOLIO, Royal Shakespeare Company Theatre, Stratford upon Avon (2011), State your Business, Lokaal01, Antwerp and Breda (2011/12), And then again..., Museu De Cicade, Lisbon (2010), 7 sites, Yorkshire Sculpture Park, Wakefield (2010), Multiple Matters, Kunstlerhaus Museum, Vienna (2010), We are the legends of Circumstance, Bargate monument museum, A-space, Southampton and White cross gallery, London (2009), Prints Unbounded, Stadt Museum and Horst Jansen museum, Oldenburg (2009) and Art Now, Tokyo Metropolitan Museum, Tokyo (2006).
Mona Hatoum was born into a Palestinian family in Beirut, Lebanon in 1952 and now lives and works in London and Berlin. She has participated in numerous important group exhibitions including The Turner Prize (1995), Venice Biennale (1995 and 2005), Documenta XI, Kassel, 2002 and Biennale of Sydney (2006). Solo exhibitions include Centre Pompidou, Paris (1994), Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago (1997), The New Museum of Contemporary Art, New York (1998), Castello di Rivoli, Turin (1999), Tate Britain, London (2000), Hamburger Kunsthalle, Kunstmuseum Bonn, Magasin 3, Stockholm (2004) and Museum of Contemporary Art, Sydney (2005). Recent exhibitions include Measures of Entanglement, UCCA, Beijing (2009), Interior Landscape, Fondazione Querini Stampalia, Venice (2009), Witness, Beirut Art Center, Beirut (2010), Le Grand Monde, Fundaciòn Marcelino Botìn, Santander (2010). In 2011 Mona Hatoum was awarded the prestigious Joan Miró Prize.
Joseph Havel (b. 1954) is a graduate of Pennsylvania State University. Recent selected solo exhibitions include Hope and Desire, Hiram Butler Gallery, Houston (2012-13), Joseph Havel, Arthur Roger Gallery, New Orleans (2012), Plus or Minus, Talley Dunn Gallery, Dallas (2012), Nothing, Yvon Lambert Gallery, New York (2010) , The Devil and Daniel Buren, Galerie Gabrielle Maubrie, Paris (2009), Night, Baltic Center for the Arts, New Castle (2007), Tell it to the Forest Fire, Mention it to the Moon, Center for Research in Contemporary Art, University of Texas, Arlington (2007), Desire, Palais de Tokyo, Paris (2002), Lost: Shirt Labels, Nothing Photographs, Dream Drawings, Galveston Art Center, Texas (1999), Joseph Havel, INOVA [Institute of Visual Arts], University of Wisconsin- Milwaukee Art Museum, Wisconsin (1997), Joseph Havel, The Center for Curatorial Studies Museum, Bard College, Annandale-on-Hudson, New York (1997), Joseph Havel, Huntington Beach Art Center, California (1996), Joseph Havel, Soros Center for Contemporary Art, Kiev (1996), Joseph Havel, Blue Star Artspace, University of Texas, San Antonio Annex Satellite Space, Texas (1995). Recent selected group shows include 20 Years, Galerie Gabrielle Maubrie, Paris (2012), New Variations, Talley Dunn Gallery, Dallas (2011), Dress Codes, Katonah Museum of Art, New York (2009), The Moon, Museum of Fine Arts Houston (2009), Material Culture, Fort Worth Contemporary Arts, Texas (2008), Amistad, Museo de Arte Moderno del Perú, Trujillo, Perú (2007), Lone Star Exhibition, National Museum, Lima, Perú (2007), Contemporary Art Houston, Museum of Fine Arts, Shanghai (2006), Texas Vision: The Barrett Collection, Meadows Museum of Fine Art, Dallas (2005), Drawing Inside and Out, Lawndale Center for the Arts, Houston (2005) and Borderlands: Images, Objects & Identity, El Paso Museum of Art, Texas (2004).
Mike Kelley was born in Detroit, Michigan in 1954. He studied at the California Institute of the Arts and the University of Michigan. Major solo exhibitions include "Catholic Tastes," Whitney Museum of American Art, New York and Los Angeles County Museum of Art (1993); "Mike Kelley," Museu d'art Contemporani, Barcelona (1997); "Framed and Framed, Test Room, Sublevel," MAGASIN, Grenoble (1999); "The Uncanny," Tate Liverpool and Museum Moderne Kunst Stiftung Ludwig, Vienna (2004); "Profondeurs Vertes," Musée du Louvre (2006); and "Educational Complex Onwards: 1995-2008," WIELS Centre d'Art Contemporain (2008). He died in Los Angeles in 2012.
Liliane Lijn was born in New York and lives in London. Internationally exhibited since the 1960's, her works are held in numerous collections including Tate London, British Museum, V&A and FNAC in Paris. Recent exhibitions include Light Years at Sir John Soane's Museum and Riflemaker, Gallery One, New Vision Centre, Signals and Indica at Tate Britain, United Enemies at Henry Moore Institute, Leeds, Republic of the Moon/Moon Futures, FACT Liverpool and Ecstatic Alphabets/Heaps of Language, Moma, New York. A solo exhibition of her work Cosmic Dramas will be at mima, Middlesbrough. Public commissions and installations in 2012 include Solar Beacon, two heliostats on the towers of the Golden Gate Bridge for its 75th anniversary and Light Pyramid, commissioned by Park Trust and MK Gallery as a beacon for the Queen's Jubilee, Milton Keynes.
Michael Petry (b. 1960) studied at Rice University, Houston (BA), London Guildhall University (MA), and has a Doctor in Arts from Middlesex University. He is Director of the Museum of Contemporary Art (MOCA) London, and Guest Curator for Futurecity. Michael Petry co-founded the Museum of Installation, and was Guest Curator at the Kunstakademiet, Oslo, and Research Fellow at the University of Wolverhampton and was Curator of the Royal Academy Schools Gallery. He is a Fellow of the Royal British Society of Sculptors (FRBS) and a Brother of the Art Workers Guild. Petry co-authored Installation Art (1994), and Installation in the New Millennium (2003), and authored Abstract Eroticism (1996) and A Thing of Beauty is...(1997). The Trouble with Michael, a monograph of his practice, was published by Art Media Press in 2001. Petry's book Hidden Histories: 20th century male same sex lovers in the visual arts (2004) is the first comprehensive survey of its kind, and accompanied the exhibition Hidden Histories he curated for The New Art Gallery Walsall. His two-volume book Golden Rain (2008) accompanied his installation for the On the Edge exhibition for Stavanger 2008, European Capital of Culture. Petry's new book, The Art of Not Making: The New Artist Artisan Relationship for Thames & Hudson was published in April, 2011. Petry was the first Artist in Residence at Sir John Soane's Museum (2010/11) exhibiting two bodies of work, published in Smoke & Mirrors (2011). His recent one man show The Touch of the Oracle at the Palm Springs Art Museum (2012) was accompanied by a ten year career review book distributed by Thames & Hudson. Petry's new book Nature Morte: contemporary artists reinvigorate the Still-Life, will be published next year by Thames & Hudson.
Meekyoung Shin (b.1967) is a graduate of Seoul National University and Slade School of Fine Art. Solo exhibitions include Written in Soap; A Plinth Project, Cavendish Square, London (2012), Translation, MOT Gallery, Taipei (2012), Translation, Haunch of Venison, London (2011), Translation, Kukje Gallery, Seoul (2009), Translation, Lefebvre & Fils Gallery, Paris (2009), Translation, Museum of Art, Seoul National University, Seoul (2008), Translation, Moon Jar, Korean Gallery, British Museum, London (2007), Translation, Tokyo Humanité Gallery, Tokyo (2002) and Translation, Sungkok Art Museum, Seoul (2002). Group shows include Korean Eye, Saatchi Gallery, London (2012), Synopticon-Contemporary Chinoiserie, Plymouth Museum/Saltram House (2012), Material Matter, East Wing X, Courtauld Institute, London (2012), As Small As a World and Large as Alone, Gallery Hyundai, Seoul (2012), Material and Energy; Korean Eye, Museum of Art and Design, New York (2011), Poetry of Clay: Korean Buncheong Ceramics from Leeum, Art Museum of San Francisco, San Francisco (2011), TRA: Edge of Becoming, Palazzo Fortuny, Venice (2011), 38°N Snow South, Charlotte Lund Gallery, Stockholm (2011), Memories from the Past, LEEUM, Samsung Museum of Art, Seoul (2010), The Alchemists, Edel Assanti, London (2010), Art & Synesthesia, Seoul City Museum, Seoul (2009), Art n Play, Hangaram Mueum, Seoul (2008), Nanging Triennale, Nanging (2008), Meme Trackers, Song Zhuang Art Center, Beijing (2008), Particules Libres, nouvelle génération d'artistes Coréens en Europe, Cité Internationale des Arts, Paris (2007), Telltale, Museum of Ewah University, Seoul (2005), Gwangju Biennale-Korea Express, Gwangju (2004), Chemical Art, Gallery Sagan, Seoul (2003), Alchemy, Sungkok Art Museum, Seoul (2001) and Soft Outside/Solid Inside-Softness Crossing Over Solidness, POSCO Art Museum, Seoul (2001).
Gavin Turk (b.1967, UK) lives and works in London. Recent solo exhibitions include Gavin & Turk, Ben Brown Fine Arts, London (2012), Before The World Was Round, Galerie Krinzinger, Vienna (2011), Jack Shit!, Aeroplastics, Brussels (2011), En Face, CAC Malaga and Galerie Almine Rech, Paris (2010) and Jazzz, Sean Kelly Gallery, New York (2009). Turk was recently commissioned to make Nail, a 12 metre bronze public sculpture at One New Change, behind St Paul's cathedral, London. Recent group exhibitions include: London Twelve, City Gallery, Prague (2012), Britain Creates 2012: Fashion + Art Collusion, V&A, London (2012), Distortion, The Gervasuti Foundation at the 53rd Venice Bienale (2009) and Pop Life, Tate Modern, London (2009).
Recent selected solo shows for Jan Vercuysse (b. 1948) include: Works, Barbara Gladstone Gallery, NY (2012), Places (Lost), Tucci Russo Studio per l'Arte Contemporanea, Turin (2011), Places (Lost), Xavier Hufkens, Brussels (2010), Jan Vercruysse, Works 1975-2009, Museum M Louvain, Belgium (2009), Places, Tucci Russo Studio per l'Arte Contemporanea, Turin (2009), Labyrinth and Pleasure Garden, Kunstmuseum aan Zee, Belgium (2009), Ventaglio, Xavier Hufkens, Tucci Russo, Art Basel Unlimited, Basel (2008) and Ventaglio di Pesaro, Centro Arti Visive Pescheria, Italy (2007). Recent selected group shows include The Good, The Bad & The Ugly, Cultuurcentrum Mechelen, Belgium (2010), The State of Things, Brussels/Beijing, National Art Museum of China, Beijing (2010), Twentysix Gasoline Stations ed altri libri d'Artista, Una collezione, Museo Regionale di Messina, Italy (2009), Guardami Il volto el lo sguardo nell'arte 1969-2009, Museo Cantonale d'Arte Lugano, Italy (2009), The State of Things, BOZAR, Brussels (2009), T-Tris, B.P.S.22, Espace de Création Contemporaine, Charleroi (2009), Summer show, Xavier Hufkens, Brussels (2009), Le chant de la carpe, Centre d'Art du Parc Saint Léger, France (2009), Sound of Music, Turner Contemporary, Margate (2009), Beaufort03, Art by the Sea, Beaufort Triennale, Belgium (2009), Spazio Libro d'Artista, Palazzo Manganelli, Italy, (2009), CONSTANTI del classico nell'arte del XX e XXI secolo, Fondazione Puglisi Cosentino, Palazzo Valle, Italy (2009), The Anniversary Show, Tracy Williams, Ltd, NY (2009) and Something Else!!!, Museo d'Arte di Nuoro, Italy (2009).
Richard Wilson (b. 1953) lives and works in London. Selected projects and exhibitions since 2000 include the Rooftop Commission at the De La Warr Pavilion, Bexhill (2012), RA Asia, Singapore & Doha (2012), Vertu commission, London & Shanghai (2011), Royal Academy Summer Show, London (2010), 20:50, Saatchi GalleryGallery, London (2010), Shack Stack, Grovesnor Dock, Chelsea, London (2010), Force Quit, WORKS|PROJECT, Matthew Bown Gallery, Berlin (2010), Royal Academy Summer Show, London (2009), London School of Economics Public work, London (2009), St James Development Public Work, London (2009), 20:50, Red Jail, Sulaymanyah, N. Iraq (2009), Folkestone Triennial, Solo show, Edinburgh Festival (2008), Turning the place Over', Liverpool (2007), Gallery MMC Luka, Pula, Croatia (2007), Zoo Art Fair, Galleria Fumagalli, Bergamo, Italy (2007), Storey Gallery, Lancaster (2006), Curve Gallery, Barbican Art Centre, London (2006), 5 Piece Kit, Matthew Bown Gallery, London (2006), Galleria Fumagalli, Bergamo, Italy (2005), Lincoln City & Archeological Museum, Yokohama Triennale, Japan (2005), Galleria Fumagalli, Bergamo, Italy (2005), Bank Job, Caveau, Palazzo delle Papesse Contemporary Art centre, Sienna (2004), Program Gallery, London (2004), 20:50, Saatchi Gallery, County Hall, London (2003), Irons in the Fire, Wapping Project, London (2003), Butterfly, Wapping Project, London (2003), Thinking Big: 21st Century British Sculpture, Peggy Guggenheim Collection, Venice (2002), Final Corner, World Cup Project, Fukuroi City, Japan (2002), Field Day, Taipei Fine Art Museum, Taipei (2001), Structurally Sound, Ex Teresa Arte Actual, Mexico City (2001), Double Vision, Galerie fur Zeitgenossischekunst, Leipzig (2001), Turbine Hall Swimming Pool, Clare College Mission Church, London (2000), Slice of Reality, North Meadow Sculpture Project, Millennium Dome (2000) and Set North for Japan (74˚33' 2"), Echigo Tsumari Project, Niigata Prefecture, Japan (2000).